Hormones such as human growth hormone (GH) and testosterone have been shown to play a role in muscle hypertrophy and strength gains. One of the core training principles for muscle hypertrophy among weight trainers is short rest— less than 1 minute between sets. In 1988, anabolic hormone guru William Kraemer, Ph.D., performed a study that literally changed the world of weight training overnight.
A literature review by Jeremy Loenneke from the University of Oklahoma and colleagues concluded that blood flow restriction training caused no prolonged decreases in muscle function, prolonged swelling or increased blood markers of muscle damage or inflammation.
Israeli researchers from the Sackler School of Medicine in Tel Aviv found that growth hormone, IGF-1 and lactate increased during a single 30-second maximal sprint on a stationary bike (i.e., Wingate test).
Meaghan Maddigan and colleagues from Memorial University of Newfoundland in Canada found that muscle activation patterns were similar during squats and sled pushing.
Brad Schoenfeld from Lehman College in New York City and colleagues found that trained subjects performing muscle-building or powerlifting workouts gained muscle mass equally, but that the powerlifting workouts produced superior strength gains.
A study led by Brad Schoenfeld from CUNY Lehman College in the Bronx, New York found that resting three minutes between sets produced greater changes in lean muscle and strength than resting one minute.
Timothy Suchomel from East Stroudsburg University in Pennsylvania, and co-workers, measured vertical jump height in test subjects two minutes after performing a single maximum-rep squat, either ballistically or non-ballistically.
Brazilian scientists, in a study on strength-trained athletes, found that muscle soreness and markers of inflammation were less during a second workout designed to cause muscle damage.
A study from the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine led by Bradley Nindl showed that growth hormone increases were greater during a two-hour aerobic workout than during a one-hour aerobic workout, one-hour weight workout, or two-hour weight workout.
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